Here is the breakdown I formalized for the Zanpakutō that we currently know about in the series.
Genryūsai Shigekuni Yamamoto
- Ryūjin Jakka:
- Flame Blade = ability to sheath his sword in flames allowing him access to a variety of abilities.
- Fire Manipulation = Yamamoto can create, shape and manipulate fire, the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products, flame being the visible portion of the fire.
- Zanka no Tachi:
- Flame Armor = ability to create armor around the user's body from fire.
- Incineration = user can utilize high temperatures to incinerate almost anything, reducing it to ashes. High level users can control what part of the target they want to incinerate, and destroy the target so completely that absolutely no byproduct is left, not even ashes.
- Firestorm = The user can create firestorms conflagrations of intense temperature, incinerating any and everything in the path.
- Ash Servants = ashes of former victim given life by the fires of the blade. Creating servants that carry out all commands.
Chōjirō Tadaoki Sasakibe
- Kōkō Gonryō Rikyū: Lightning Storm - Ranged
Shunsui Sōzōsuke Jirō Kyōraku
- Katen Kyōkotsu:
- Rule Creation (via Children Games) = Shunsui can create physical laws to bend others to the boundaries of the rule. When the rules have been set then the victims have no chance of escaping them. Unless the victims abide to the rules, it's hopeless for them.
- Death in Two Strikes = This power allows the user to kill a victim with precisely two strikes. This is achieved by marking the target with the first hit, and then striking on the same location a second time, in which will deal instant death the moment it hits, disregarding of the opponent's remaining vitality.
- Jakuhō Raikōben:
- Single Missile Attack = can generate missiles. Missiles with homing capabilities and fire them.
- Kinshara: Music Manipulation
- Musical Spell Casting = Rose can use his zanpakutō to cast spells and manipulate reality in a small area. The user can summon objects and creatures from the sky, enhance or debuff the abilities of others in the area, and empower the player. The instrument can also kill or heal targets around the area.
- Omnidirectional Sound Wave (via Music) = ability to release powerful omnidirectional waves at once in a wide area
- Kinshara Butōdan:
- Psychosomatic Illusions (via Hypnotic Music) = can create illusions that are so realistic and powerful they can cause physical effects (cuts, bruises, burns, etc) to appear on the target and affect surroundings as they were real.
- Weight Increase: Kira can manipulate the weight of anything his zanpakutō making it very heavy and impossible to move. The user can make the object so heavy it can break through almost anything.
- Minazuki: ?
- Minazuki: ? Molecular Acceleration - Melting
- Itegumo: ?
- Inverted World (via Smell) = creates a optical illusion that seemingly negates the laws of reality and make everything appear backwards or inverted. The user can cause the enemy to be confused and throws them off balance. The user can even launch attacks that are coming from a reversed direction so that the enemy cannot see them coming or cannot defend because everything is reversed.
- Fire Balls = ability to create and launch fireballs.
- Blade Manipulation = can shape and otherwise manipulate shards of his sword in single or multiples.
- Senbonzakura Kageyoshi:
- Advanced Blade Manipulation = can shape and otherwise manipulate a even larger number of shards of his sword in single or multiples, and have exceptional proficiency with swords to use telekinetically control them and attack with how ever he pleases.
- Blade Construction: User can construct bladed weapons of various lengths, shapes and sizes from nothing or by shaping the existing matter or energy. Depending on what the weapon is made of, it can posses a variety of abilities and be very effective in both offensive and defensive combat.
- Zabimaru: Whip-Blade Elongation - Ranged
- Sōō Zabimaru: Snake/Baboon Empowered Armor - Melee
- Giant Appendage Manifestation = Komamura are able to create/summon portions of the guardian, such as an arm alone that may be physical or purely spiritual. The guardian's strength may be driven by the user's force of will.
- Kokujō Tengen Myō'ō:
- Armored Giant Manifestation = Komamura is able to create/summon a physical guardian. It has the form of a giant samurai and will fight on his behalf. The guardian's strength is driven by the user's force of will.
- Air Attacks = user can release/use air/wind to attacks of various shapes and/or intensities, either projected, used as a part of melee attacks, etc.
- Air Bomb Generation = is able to form compressed explosions of air into shapes such as spheres, allowing them to be projected or thrown. With the bomb comes into contact with a target, the air is released with force, from sudden gusts to hurricane force winds. With training, the user could be able to detonate the bombs at will or have several orbit the user.
- Air Blades = user is able to use air itself to slice objects, focusing a current of wind, or in some cases sound, to the point where it takes on a sharp edge which the caster launches at foes. If the pressure wave is strong enough, it can split the air itself to create a vacuum shock-wave sharp enough to slice through anything in its path.
- Tekken Tachikaze:
- Multi-Hit Explosive Contact = Tekken Tachikaze focuses all of its Shikai form's destructive power into its knuckle blades. As a result, Kensei's punches release immense explosive force on impact. This explosive power continues to assault his opponent endlessly as long as his fist remains in contact with his opponent. When using this ability, Kensei can change its knuckle blades change into brass knuckles, as well as spiked gauntlets.
- Kazeshini: Melee
- Ice Generation = Hitsugaya can generate and project ice from his zanpakutō.
- Daiguren Hyōrinmaru:
- Ice Manipulation = Hitsugaya can create, shape and manipulate ice, water frozen into a solid state and appears naturally in forms of snow, hail, icicles, ice spikes, pack ice, frost, and cold by reducing the kinetic energy of atoms and thus making things colder, for various effects and combinations
- Cold Weather Control = Hitsugaya can sense, generate and manipulate all cold aspects of the weather such as snow, hail, blizzards, cold air, freezing rain etc.
- Ash Manipulation = Rangiku can manipulate ash that forms its blade, which as already burnt matter cannot be burned again granting the user immunity against all fire-based powers (i.e. Fire Manipulation). At the same time, it can contain residual heat, causing temperature-based damage.
- Sanpo Kenjū:
- Multi-Hit Strike = ability to strike multiple times with a single blow. Her sword can hit her opponent regardless or whether they dodge it or not. The power of her sword is to 'copycat', thus before and behind her sword there is a "kid" imitating it. Therefore even if you think your avoiding it your your still getting hit by it. This is because of an attack reaching her opponent before she connects with her attack and then a following attack after she makes an attack. Essentially 3 blades attacking at once hitting the target before it can react.
- Hōzukimaru: Melee
- Ryūmon Hōzukimaru:
- Charged Attack = Ikkaku is able to build up power in order to make his standard and special attacks stronger and deal more damage.
- Ruri'iro Kujaku:
- Reiryoku Absorption = can absorb spiritual energy from the soul itself. He can channel the energy to enhance his physical condition or even augment his own powers.
- Ashisogi Jizō:
- Paralysis Inducement = can immobilize target completely, causing them to be left without movement. Making motor functions and muscle movement unavailable, the victim may freeze on the spot or crumple to the ground.
- Konjiki Ashisogi Jizō:
- Monster Manifestation = Mayuri is able to create/summon a guardian that is a physical being. Guardians appearance is that of a giant humanoid baby head and arms attached to a catapiller-like body is will protect Mayuri at all costs, and fight on their behalf. The guardian's strength may be driven by the user's force of will or by it's own independent will.
- Poison Emission = The creature breathes a poisonous derivative of Mayuri's blood, which is lethal to anyone who breathes it, aside from Mayuri and Nemu. The poison spreads through a very wide area, and it is almost impossible to avoid. Konjiki Ashisogi Jizō's poison is very potent, as Szayelaporro's body started to break down immediately after it was introduced. Mayuri can change the composition of the poison as well, ensuring that no foolproof antidote can ever be manufactured to cure it, and no immunity is developed against it. Even if the opponent does not breathe, the poison will still enter their body.
- Sōgyo no Kotowari:
- Energy Redirection: Ukitake is able to absorb energy and energy-based attacks into his zanpakutō and release it in a more desirable direction, even faster then when it was originally fired.
- Sode no Shirayuki:
- Temperature Reduction = Rukia can create, shape and manipulate cold by reducing the kinetic energy of atoms and thus making things colder, ranging from subjective feeling of cool to absolute zero. (Cryostasis, Ultimate Freeze, limited Ice Manipulation)
- Hakka no Tagome:
- Absolute Zero = power to realease a cold mist that has the power to freeze completely anything within the given vicinity of the area of affect.
- Blade Elongation = is able to extend the length of his sword to that of 100 sword lengths.
- Kamishini no Yari:
- Advanced Blade Elongation = is able to extend & contract the length of his sword 13 miles at 5x the speed of sound.
- Molecular Poison = blades particles contain a molecular poison that breaks organic material down as the cellular level upon activation.
- Kyōka Suigetsu:
- Absolute Illusion (via Visual Hypnosis) = able to generate illusions perceiving unreal things to people. The illusions look very realistic to the point where the user can confuse all the senses of the enemy, forever making them live in alternative reality.
- Tengumaru: Giant Fireball - Ranged
- Sound Manipulation
- Neruo-Shut Down = ability to cause the opponent's upper brain functions to shut down temporarily, causing unconsciousness.
- Vibration Blade Duplication = Tosen can vibrate the blade of his zanpakuto using a high pitch which allows him to construct bladed weapons of various lengths, shapes and sizes from nothing and fire them at an opponent.
- Suzumushi Tsuishiki: Enma Kōrogi:
- Negative Zone Creation = Tosen can create an area where things defer from normal state.
- Sensory Deprivation (via Sound based Area Effect) = Tōsen is able to numb/decrease the senses (sight, taste, hearing, and smell) of others temporarily when they are within his area of influence.
- Engetsu: Reishi Energy Blasts - Ranged
- Zangetsu: Reishi Energy Blasts - Ranged
- Tensa Zangetsu: Hyper-Speed Combat, Reishi Energy Blasts, Power Embodiment - Ranged/Melee
- Benihime: Energy Manipulation - Ranged
- Razor Water = The user can use water to cut through matter, often by firing high-pressure jets of water.